International: The 84 series to the C/CX series.
Written by David J McCormack
The following is a compilation of descriptive and some technical information about the International Harvester 84 series and the direct replacements of this series. All information pertains to North American tractors, specifically Canadian models. Information from sales brochures and the authors personal observations were used in writing this text.
|The 84 series: A tractor to suit any
The 84 series debuted in North America in 1978 as the successor to the 74 series. Initially only five models were offered, the 484,584,684,784 and Hydro 84. The 884 was introduced at a later date bringing the total to 6 models. All models featured diesel engines, hydrostatic power steering, hydraulic brakes, three lever 3 point hitch controls, a differential lock, and a hydraulically engaged independent PTO. Row crop, utility and low profile variations were available for the 584 to the 884, while the 484 was only available in utility and low profile models.
Engines and power were as follows: The 484 used a 179CI(2.93L) inline 3 cylinder (I-3) at 42 PTO HP. The 584 used a 206CI(3.37) inline 4 cylinder (I-4) at 52 PTO HP. The 684 used a 239CI(3.91L) I-4 at 62 PTO HP. The 784 and Hydro 84 used a 246CI(4.03L) I-4, the 784 having 67 PTO HP and the Hydro 84 having 59 PTO HP. The 884 had a 268CI(4.39L) I-4 good for 72 PTO HP.
Transmission options were simple, the 484, 584, 684 and 784 used a synchronized 8 forward and 4 reverse gearbox. The 884 had the Torque Amplifier equipped 16 forward and 8 reverse as standard equipment while the TA was an option for the 784 and 684. The Hydro 84 used a hydrostatic drive that had an infinite selection of speeds. All transmissions used left hand side levers. A ZF front wheel assist axle was available for all but the 484. The ZF axle used a sideline drive shaft.
Initially the 84 series were all open station tractors with either low crown (angled) or high crown (flat top) fenders. Two post ROPS were available. A canopy was available for the ROPS. The canopy could be equipped with a liner package that added hazard lamps to it. After introduction, a cab manufactured by SIMS was available as an option for all but the 484. This cab was styled to look just like the larger 86 series except the SIMS cab used a flat glass windshield when the IH built cab on the 86 series had a curved windshield.
Early 84 series used a white and red color scheme, The body, hood and fenders were red with white hubs and silver rims. The hood side panels were also white. The 2 post ROPS was black. The early canopies were white and SIMS cabs were white with red accents just like the 86 series. Later 84 series were solid red with silver rims. The canopy was red and the SIMS cab was now a red/black combination to match the newly introduced 86 series replacement, the 88 series.
Model numbers were at the nose of the hood.
Early 84 series had the Inline shift pattern found on the older 74 series where the newer ones had the H pattern. Variations in the positioning of the foot throttle and fuel shutoff control also existed.
A 385 model was introduced around 1984. It was similar to the 484 but used a 155CI(2.5L) I-3 at 35 PTO HP. These tractors were just like the rest of the late production 84 series in appearance and decaled International. It could be speculated that IH chose to use 385 for this new model to avoid confusion with a recently discontinued 384 model that was totally different than the 84 series. It used an I-4 @40 PTO HP with a 8F-2R gearbox.
Late 1984 came, Case had acquired IH. The 84 series were saved unlike the bigger IH tractors. For a short while, all 84 series tractors adopted the now familiar red/black Case-IH colors and Case-International decals but retained the IH style grill and optional SIMS cab.
|The 85 series: A new
The year 1985 brought the 85 series. Most aspects of the 84 series remained, but many improvements were made. Models included the 385,485,585,685 and 885. The 784 and Hydro 84 were discontinued with no 85 series replacements. The 85 series was basically an improved 84 series that established that these tractors were to be an integral part of the new Case International. In addition to the model variations of the previous 84 series, a new orchard/vineyard special was added for the 485,585 and 685.
Engines and power stayed the same, but new transmission options existed. Models 385 to the 685 had the 8F-4R gearbox while the 885 had the 16F-8R gearbox with electro-hydraulically switched power shift. The new power shift was optional on all other models. An 8F-8R hydraulic shuttle shift was optional for all models. It allowed rolling forward/reverse shifts but the clutch still had to be used. The shuttle used a lever similar to the left hand dash mounted TA lever on the 84 series. The optional front wheel assist was now a centerline design, and was available on all models. The 385 and 485 FWA used manual engagement with electro-hydraulic switch engagement as an option. The 585,685 and 885 had the electro-hydraulic switch standard with FWA.
The 85 series had a black body , hubs and now standard 2 post ROPS. The hood and fenders were red and a new Case-styled grill with square headlights was added. Rims were silver. The same low and optional high crown fenders and optional canopy were available. Big news was IH designed XL cab was now available in North America. The XL cab was optional on the 585,685 and 885. The SIMS cab was now being sold on the aftermarket, often by the Case-IH dealer and could be installed on any new 85 series or retrofitted on older 84 series. The rather odd "CASEinternational" "internationalCASE" decals were used. The model numbers were near the back of the hood, or on the doors of XL cabbed tractors.
|The 95 series: A refreshment for the
For 1991 The 85 series were changed to the 95 series. Cosmetic improvements were the most obvious change, but there were other functional changes. Models 395,495,595,695 and 895 were available. A new 995 model was also released.
All 95 series had the same power and drive train options as the 85 series. The new 995 was essentially a turbocharged 895, it used the same displacement engine and came with the 16F-8R standard just like the 895. The 995 had 85 PTO HP, 13 more than the 895. A new
creeper transmission option was added for all models, added to the standard 8F-4R, an additional 8F-4R under 3 km/h were available
The 95 series featured a new rounded grill, ending the boxy Case style. Wraparound headlights were featured in the grill. Color schemes stayed much the same but there were some minor changes such as the lower part of the XL cab doors now being red. Decals now made sense with Case International printed in same size letters and could be read properly on both sides of the hood. Model numbers were all on the back part of the hood stripe. A new dash was added to the open station tractors with some revised control locations and instruments. XL cabbed tractors received a new digital dash, and the hazard lamps were moved from the sides of the cab to the front and back much like the canopy with completion package. Hazard lamps were also changed on the high crown fenders to a pair of lamps like the low crown fender as opposed to front and back lamps on the ends. Tool boxes were eliminated from the lefthand floor board of open station tractors.
|The 3200/4200 Series: Fitting in with
the rest of the Case-IH family.
The year 1994 saw more cosmetic and some mechanical upgrades. Following suit with the rest of the Case-IH family such as the Maxxum 5200 series, Magnum 7200 series and Steiger 9200 series tractors, the 3200 and 4200 series were released. The 495 and 595 became the 3220 and 3230, the 695,895 and 995 became the 4210, 4230 and 4240. The 395 was discontinued. For some reason Case-IH chose to use 3200 and 4200 instead of just using one or the other.
Horsepower and transmission options remained the same for the 3200/4200 series as the 95 series before, but the 8F-4R synchromesh was standard on all models. Cab models received electrically activated differential lock.
The most noticeable difference of the 3200/4200 series is the hood, a new larger hood was used and the new sloping design provided better forward visibility. A new grill and large exhaust pipe completed the new look. Just like big brothers 5200 and 7200, side vents were added to the hood side panels. A revised dash and instrument panel was added to open station tractors to accommodate the new hood. Color schemes remained the same but a new strobe type decal was used on the hood and model numbers returned to the nose like the 84 series. The XL cab was finally had "XL" put on the cab doors. The major improvement in XL cab was the addition of a new right hand side console. For the first time, the gearshift levers were mounted on the right hand side on the new console along with the differential lock switch and the optional FWA switch. The optional power shift had the switch mounted on the new shift levers as opposed to the dash in previous models and the open station 3200/4200 series. All open station tractors retained the left hand shifters like previous models.
|The C and CX Series: Phasing out a
tried and true design
For 1997 big changes were in store. The diesel engines that had been used for over 2 decades could not meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions requirements. Case Corp decided it was more cost effective to replace the old engines rather than make them meet the emissions requirements. New engines were built by Perkins to meet Case Corp specifications. With the introduction of the new engines, two new tractor series were released. The C series tractors were basically the back half of the old 3200/4200 series with the new Perkins made engines. The CX series were brand new from the ground up.
Model designations were chosen to match the rest of the Case Corp family which had switched to alpha-numeric model numbers. Six power sizes were available in 12 different models. Models C50/CX50, C60/CX60, C70/CX70, C80/CX80, C90/CX90 and C100/CX100
were now available. The model number was a close approximation of the engine horsepower of the model.
The new diesel engines were smaller and turbo charging was widespread. Engine sizes and horsepower were as follows: The 50's used a 165CI (2.7L) I-3 @40 PTO HP, 60's used the same size engine as the 50's but with a turbo charger good for 50 PTO HP. The 70 models used a 258CI(4.2L) I-4 @60 PTO HP, the biggest displacement engine in the line. Models 80 had a turbo charged 244CI(4.0L) I-4 for 67 PTO HP. Models 90 and 100 shared the same displacement engine as the 80's but utilized a wastegate turbo charger giving the 90's 74 PTO HP and the 100's 83 PTO HP.
Transmission options varied between C and CX tractors. The C series came with the same transmission options as the 3200/4200 series. The CX series had totally different transmission options. An 8F-8R transmission with a left hand column synchronized shuttle was standard. Range and speed levers were on the right hand side of CX tractors. A two speed power shift option was available making the 8F-8R into 16F-8R, the power shift not being effective in reverse gears. A 24F-12R with creeper was the next option, it was not available on early CX tractors. A new lubed for life FWA axle was also introduced.
C-series tractors were only available as ROPS models with the option of a canopy. No factory cab was available for the C-series. Like the previous open station models, all C-series were straddle design. Fender options remained the same as the 3200/4200 open station tractors. The CX series offered a new open station platform version and an all new cab which was similar to the cab of the MX Maxxums, except it had two doors as opposed to the single door of the early MX Maxxums. Platform CX tractors featured right hand console shift levers unlike the C-series. Features such as rear 3-pt fender controls were available on the new CX series. Folding ROPS were also made available for C and CX tractors. The exhaust pipe on cab models was near the right hand cab post while early CX platform tractors had a hood mounted exhaust. Later CX platform tractors received the "cab post" exhaust just like the cab tractors.
All C/CX tractors sported the new "Case-IH" decals with International no longer being spelled out. Model numbers remained at the nose of the tractor. Early C/CX tractors used a hood of the same design as the 3200/4200 series tractors, however the hood now tipped open with removal of the side panels. Later four cylinder CX tractors received a different hood with revised decals that was styled just like the MX Maxxum tractors. This new hood completely tipped up for servicing. The C series, CX50 and CX60 retained the earlier designed hood. Later C-series tractors had a larger plastic fuel tank, while the early C-series had the same design tank that could be found way back to the 84 series.
|Making your tractor more useful: Case-IH
International Harvester offered loaders that were matched to the 84 series tractors. A 2200 model loader fit 385, 484, 584 models and offered full hydraulic control and could lift 1700 lbs. Various buckets were available. The 2200 was not a quick attach loader and was time consuming to unhook and reattach to the tractor. A 2250 "Mount-o-Matic" loader was available to fit the 584, 684, 784, 884 and H-84. Capable of lifting 2500 lbs, the 2250 was a quick attach loader and could be removed and reinstalled in minutes. The wraparound style frame of the loader served as parking stands. All loaders had red arms and mounts with black buckets. A non quick attach 1850 loader was available for the 84 series early in production, but the author was unable to find information on it.
For the 85 series, the three previous loaders were simply decalled "CASEinternational" The 2200 loader fit the 385, 485, and 2wd open stationed 585's. The 2200 was also commonly fitted on the new FWA 385 and 485. The 2250 loader was now recommended for 585 and up 2wd ROPS or XL cabbed tractors. A new heavy duty 2255 "Mount-o-Matic" loader introduced to provided a loader matched to the strengths of the new FWA tractors. The 2255 was recommended for 485 FWA and 585 and up 2wd or FWA versions. The 2255 had a lift capacity of 2500 lbs. Self-leveling was available for the 2255. The red/black color scheme remained.
The 95 series and 3200/4200 series had the same loaders, but with revised "case-international" decals. Loader matching stayed basically the same, but Case-IH advocated the 2250 loader for the FWA 395 and 495 size tractors. The C/CX series introduction resulted in the loader line getting the new "Case-IH" decals. Loader fitment matched power size/drive train much the way it had done with the 3200/4200 series, with the 2200 recommended for smaller 2wd models, 2250 recommend for larger 2wd models and the 2255 recommend for FWA models.
In 1999, a new loader series was released. The aging loader line up was discontinued. The 2250 loader had been around since the 74 series, and the newest 2255 design was 14 years old. Case Corp introduced new four models, the L400, L450 ,L500 and L550. All the new loaders were quick attach and used a mid mount design. The L400 loader boasted a 2100 lb lift capacity. The L450 was featured a bucket quick coupler standard and a hydraulic self leveling bucket. The L450 could lift 2500lbs. The 400 series loaders fit C50/CX50 and C60/CX60 tractors. The L500 loader could lift 3100 lbs and fit the C70 up to the CX100 tractors. The L550 featured a hydraulic self leveling bucket and quick attach bucket coupler. The L550 could lift 3800lb. Quick attach bucket couplers were available for the L400 and L500 loaders as options.
The new L series had red loader arms, black buckets and black sub frame mounts. The L series loaders were recently updated to the "five" series. The current models are the L405, L455, L505 and L555. The L series loaders are manufactured in Canada for CaseNH by Matcor Metal Fabrication.